Maps, Their Makers and the Impact on the Development of the World (10 weeks)
F 2017

Description

Title:   Maps, Their Makers and the Impact on the Development of the World

               Before the end of the 19th Century the exploration and development of the world depended in significant part on the ability of countries and civilizations to develop what they believed were accurate and convincing maps.  This SDG will review and discuss approximately fifty of the most important maps prepared by and often purloined from the most important cartographers in the world.  Each SDG will discuss the map, its maker(s), the era and the reasons maps were created.  Some maps had a significant impact upon the world during that era in terms of global trade, colonization and the settlement of geo-political boundaries. Other maps were created to curry favor of their sponsors, rulers or the Church. For some maps, the Church and State provided an influence, often negative, upon the mapmakers and their craft. Our discussion will review how astronomy, mathematics, science and information supplied by that era’s explorers and navigators impacted map development. Mapmakers became the technology leaders of their era, opening new vistas and opportunities for their sponsors and users.  Copies of all maps not in the core books will be provided by the Class Coordinator. 


Weekly Topics

                                            Tentative Map Discussion by Week


 

Week 1 – Early Maps, Map Materials, Predecessors to Ptolemy – Eratosthenes, Strabo, Aristotle and other Muslim, Greek and Roman geographers and thinkers.

1. Types of Maps

2. Materials Used to make maps

3. Early maps

4. Juxtaposition of maps

5. Early scientific maps

6. Early non-scientific maps

7. Reasons why early maps were created

 

 

Babylonia World Map (750 BC)

 

Ptolemy’s World Map (150) 

 

The Book of Curiosities (1020-50)

 

Entertainment for He Who Longs to Travel the World, al-Sharif al-Idrisi (1154)

 

Peutinger Map of Roman Map (300)

(Konrad Peutinger)

 

 

 

Week 2 – Medieval Maps and Religious-based maps

1. Christian Influence on map-making but not all map-makers are Christian

2. 15th Century evidencing a departure from Christian belief

3. Portolan charts and maps – used for navigation

4. Instruments which were developed and accompanied portolan maps such as the following navigation aids: (Magnetic compass, quadrants, astrolabe, cross staffs, plane table, triangulators, etc.)


 

 

Sawley Map – Picture of the World (1200)

 

Hereford Mappa Mundie (1300)

 

Catalan Atlas (1375) (Abraham Cresques)

 

Fra Mauro’s World Map (1450)

 

Carte Pisane (1275-1300)

 

T-O Mappaemundi (1472)

 

 

Week 3– Maps of the New World

1. Treaty of Tordesillas

2. Naming of America

3. Voyages of Columbus, Fernao de      Magalhaes, del Cano and daGama

4. 16th Century Mapmaker rock stars performing for the Moluccas; Treaty of Saragossa

5. Iconography in maps

 

Juan de la Cosa’s World Chart (1500)

 

First Map of America (1507)

(Martin Waldseemuller)

 

The Cortes Map (1524)  Hernan Cortes

 

Magellan Circumnavigation (circa 1525)

(Diego Ribero Padron)

 

Diego Robero Universal Chart (1529)

 

Piri Re’is Map (1513)

 

 

Week 4 – Scientific and Mathematical Influences on Mapmaking

1. Mercator, Ortelius, Hondus

2. Religious vs. scientific approaches

3. Dealing with the curvature of the Earth

4. Cosmography

 

 

A New and Enlarged Description of the Earth (1569) (Gerard Mercator)

 

Typus Orbis Terrarum (Map of the Word) by Abraham Ortelius (1570)

 

Jodocus Hondius,  Christian Knight Map (Typus Totius Orbis Terrarium, In Quo, circa 1596)

 

Globe Gores – Double-Hemisphere World Map by Antonio Florian (1555)

 

 

Week 5 – Maps to support global trading by the Netherlands for the Dutch East India Company.  

1. Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (“VOC”). Creation and influence of the Dutch East India Company

2. The Blaeu Family

3. Further influence by scientists – Nicolaus Copernicus and Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

4. Mapmaking as modern business through acquisitions

5. Influence on art

 

 

Petrus Plancius (Orbis Terrarum Typus de Intro Multis in Locus Emendatus) (1594)

 

New Map of the Whole World (1648)

(Joan Blaeu)

 

The Molucca Islands (1594)

(Petrus Plancius)

 

Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis,

(1606) Willem Blaeu

 

 

 

 Week 6 – Maps Affecting Asia’s and  China’s View of the World outside the Middle Kingdom and the World’s view of Asia

1. The Silk Road – Tang Dynasty

2. Song Dynasty – Early accuracy in Chinese map-making

3. Ming Dynasty – Voyages of Zheng He and China’s naval prowess

4. Ming Dynasty – Attempts to Christianize the Chinese

5. Qing Dynasty

 

Dunhuang Star Chart (649-684, Tang Dynasty) (Li Chungfeng)

 

Map of the Tracks of Yu (1136)

 

The Kangnido map (1470)

 

Nautical Chart (1628) (Zheng He voyages Ming Dynasty)

 

Map of the Ten Thousand Countries of the Earth (1602) (Matteo Ricci, Li Zhizao, Zhang   Wentao)

 

Tianxi Quantu Map by Huang Qianren

(Cir. 1767) (Qing Dynasty)


 


Week 7 – Maps described and used in response by British in catching up with Dutch and Portuguese global trade.

1. Legitimizing piracy – Sir Francis Drake

2. John Harrison’s chronograph in response to the Longitude Act of 1714

3. British East India Company 

4. England’s colonization of India; Hudson Bay Company, 1715 Treaty of Utrecht; Joint Stock Companies

5. Role of Lloyd’s of London

6. The voyages of Captain James Cook and Captain William Bligh.


 


Map of the Queen’s Pirate, Double-Hemisphere World Map entitled, Vera Totius Expeditionis Nauticae Descriptio by Jodocus Hondius (1595-96)


John Seller’s Maritime Atlas (1670)


Maps of William Baffin and Sir Thomas Roe (Mani Mogolis Imperium)


Chart of the Society Islands, 1769 (James Cook)


Capt. William Bligh’s chart of his open-boat journey from HMAV Bounty (1789)


See also, A Map of the British colonies in North America, (John Mitchell, 1755)




 

Week 8 – Maps of North America.

1. Early views of the North America

2. Mapping the Colonies

3. Influencing the boundaries of the New Colonies after the Revolutionary War

4. Exploration of the Northwest

 

 

Jansen Map of North America (1664)

 

Map of New England (1677) (John Foster)

 

A Map of the British Colonies in North America (1755) (John Mitchell)

 

Survey of the North Pacific (circa 1776)

(James Cook and Henry Roberts)

 

Lewis & Clark Expedition of 1803-06

 

 

Week 9 – Maps that supported the colonization of Africa

1. Early view of Africa – How it was imagined

2. European colonialization of Africa

3. European slave trading

 

 

Jodocus Hondius Maps of West Africa (1606)

 

Willem Blaeu’s Ornamental Africa (1630-1662)

 

Dr. Livingstone’s Map of Africa (1873)

(David Livingston)

 

van Keulen sea chart of

the Gold Coast of Guinea (1680)

Pieter Goos "navigational chart of the

West Indies", ca 1660

 

 

Week 10 – California Here We Come and Other Important Maps –Aztec Maps, Spanish Discoveror Maps

1. Cartographers information about the New World

2. Spanish voyages and expeditions affecting the contours of North and South America 

3. Map of the skies

 

 

Early Portolan Maps showing California (1557-78)

 

Maris Pacifici by Abraham Ortelius (1589)

 

North America by Johannes Jansson (1640)

 

America by Jodocus Hondius (1606)

 

Antique map of America by Nicolaas Visscher (1656)

 

Tabula California by Eusebio Francisco Kino (1702)

 

The Cortes Map (1524)

 

Aztec Map of Tenochtitlan (1542)

 

Sceno Graphia Systematis Copernicani by Andreas Cellarius (1660)


                                                       Directory of Maps


      

Week 1

 

Babylonia World Map (750 BCE)

 

Earliest known map of the whole world. Discovered in late 19th Century whose significance was not determined until late 20th Century.  Description in Smithsonian at pp. 22-23.

Ptolemy’ World Map (150CE) 

 

World (as it was known—primarily Mediterranean);  Ptolemy was an Egyptian scholar; introduced flat map to take into account curved parallels and meridians

Time period:   Old world; Greek, Roman Period. Good description in Smithsonian at pp.  24-25. See also Mapping the World at pp. 6-7.  Extensive discussion in Chapter 1 of Brotton.

 

The Book of Curiosities (1020-50 CE)

 

Muslim map which describes the heavens and the Earth according to Muslim astronomers, scholars, and travelers. Influenced by Ptolemy and other mapmakers. Description found in Smithsonian at pp. 40-43.

 

Entertainment for He Who Longs to Travel the World, al-Sharif al-Idrisi (1154 CE)

 

Map by Muslim Arab scholar Al-Sharif al-Idrisi under the patronage of Sicily’s Norman ruler, Roger II. Description found in Smithsonian 46-49.  Extensive discussion in Chapter 2 of Brotton.

Peutinger Map of Roman Map (300CE)

 

Roman but made in German by Konrad Peutinger.  Good description in Smithsonian at pp. 28-29.

 

Week 2

 

Sawley Map – Picture of the World (1200)

 

Earliest known English World Map.  Description in Smithsonian at pp. 50-51.

Hereford Mappa Munde (1300)

Church’s influence on mapmaking and glimpse in the European Middle Ages. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 56-59.  Extensive discussion at Chapter 3 of Brotton.

 

Catalan Atlas (1375)

 

Said to be an indispensable summary of late medieval Europe’s geographical knowledge; Jewish Cartographer Abraham Cresques.  Description in Smithsonian at pp.62-65; see also Mapping the World at pp. 28-30.

 

Fra Mauro’s World Map (1450)

 

World; mixture of scientific and Christian geography (e.g. paradise); includes China, Japan, Africa, cosmos; Italian. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 72-75.

 

Carte Pisane

 

Earliest portolan chart for navigating the Mediterranean description in Smithsonian at pp. 52-55.

T-O Mappaemundi (1472)

Early world map described in Brotton at p. 96-101. See discussion in Nat’l Geo at page 26-27 on T-O Mappa.

 

Week 3

 

Juan de la Cosa’s World Chart (1500)

 

World; shows the discoveries of Christopher Columbus; displays the Americas as a separate landmass; sailed with Columbus on many voyages. Killed in the Americas by Native Americans.  Description in Smithsonian at pp. 76-79.

See also, Nat’l Geo pp 76-79.

 

First Map of America (1507)

 

North & South America; earliest map to show America as a separate continent; taking into account the travels of Amerigo Vespucci.  Description in Smithsonian at pp. 86-89.

 

The Cortes Map (1524)  Hernan Cortes

 

Map of the Gulf of Mexico and Plan of Mexico City. Marked the European discovery of the Western part of North America.  See description in Mapping the West pp 18-21.

Magellan Circumnavigation (circa 1525)

(Diego Ribero Padron)

 

Map of World Reflecting Magellan navigation. (Diego Ribero (Portuguese), Battista Agnese (Venetian) mapmakers.  Smithsonian pp. 100-05; also description in Mapping the World at pp. 43-45.

 

Diego Robero Universal Chart (1529)

 

World map produced by Portuguese mapmaker, Diogo Ribeiro, for his Spanish sponsors to support their claim to the Molucca Islands against the Portuguese.  Description found at pp. 100-03 in Smithsonian.

 

Piri Re’is Map (1513)

 

Early map of the Americas following their discovery by Christopher Columbus.  Good description in Smithsonian at pp. 90-93.

 

Week 4

 

A New and Enlarged Description of the Earth (1569)

 

Mercator, considered the most famous mapmaker which used his mathematical projection of the world.  Incorporated Magellan’s global voyage.  Description in Smithsonian at pp. 110-113.

 

Typus Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the Word) by Abraham Ortelius (1570)

 

 

World. Dutch mapmaker Ortelius by his Theatre of the World map revolutionized the map trade by his book of maps which were uniform in design and size and shifted the map trade from Venice and Rome to Antwerp. Description in Mapping the World—Nat’l Geo at pp 99-100.

 

Globe Gores – Double-Hemisphere World Map by Antonio Florian (1555)

 

16th Century Map to utilize 36 “gores” of 10 degrees to portray the Earth as a globe on a flat surface. Man and description at Nat’l Geo pp. 86-87.

Class 5

 

Petrus Plancius (Orbis Terrarum Typus de Intro Multis in Locus Emendatus) (1594)

 

World. Highly decorative and elegant Dutch map which utilizes elaborate pictorial borders representing people, animals and foreign environments.  Description in Collecting, pp. 52-54.

 

New Map of the Whole World (1648)

(Joan Blaeu)

 

World.  Important also because it was a product of Joan Blaeu, scion of cartographic dynasty that charted the rise of the Netherlands as the foremost trading and exploratory nation of its day.  Description in Smithsonian at pp 142-45.

 

The Molucca Islands (1594)

South East Asia. Petrus Plancius aka Pieter Platevoet, Dutch astronomer and cartographer, produced over 100 maps for the Dutch East India Company.  Maps replaced old portolan charts and specifically created maps used in navigation. Dutch were anxious to enter into the spice trade which at that time was dominated by the Portuguese.  Plancius reportedly obtained Portuguese maps from Portuguese pilots through “nefarious means.”  Plancius’ maps open the way for the Dutch to become a leader in Asian trade.  Complements discussion on Mercator as Plancius took advantage of Mercator’s projection. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 122-25.

 

Nova Totius Terrarum Orbis,

(1606) Willem Blaeu  

 

World. One of the best known cartographic images which was renowned for its decorative borders expressing then world views of the Wonders of the World and seven planets. See Collecting p. 199 and Mapping the World at pp. 54-55.

 

Week 6

 

Dunhuang Star Chart (649-684 CE) (Li Chungfeng) (Tang Dynasty)

 

The Dunhuang Star Chart is the oldest known map of the heavens  made around 649-684 CE during the Tang Dynasty and was discovered in 1907 in the so-called Caves of the Thousand Buddhas in the town of Dunhuang situated on the Silk Road.  Description found in Smithsonian at pp. 36-39.

 

Nautical Chart (1628) (Zheng He voyages Ming Dynasty)

 

China, nautical.  The voyages of Zheng He between 1405 and 1433 were some of the most important maritime expeditious.  Zheng He and his ships could be discussed for the entire period in addition to his maps.  Description of maps in the Smithsonian at pp. 134-37.  Much literature on Zheng He.

 

Map of the Tracks of Yu (1136)

 

The most famous of all Chinese Maps created in the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). Amazing accurate map created on a stone slab.  Description found in Smithsonian at pp. 44-45/

The Kangnido map (1402)

 

Earliest known East Asian map depict Europe as well Asian countries. Description found at pp 66-67 in Smithsonian.

 

Map of the Ten Thousand Countries of the Earth (1602) (Ricci)

 

China, World.  Ricci created a fusion of European and Chinese geographical knowledge which offered China its first glimpse of America.  Ricci has an interesting background in terms of his access to the Ming Court and introducing Christianity to the Chinese court.  Description in Smithsonian at pp.126-27.  Significant materials on Matteo Ricci, the Jesuit Priest.

 

Tianxi Quantu Map

 

China. The present blue map dates back to 1811, however the original (smaller) version of the Complete Geographical Map of the Everlasting Unified Qing Empire by Huang Qianren was first presented to the Qianlong emperor in 1767. A painted copy of the map was produced in 1800 by Huang Zhengsun (today in the Beijing National Library) before an enlarged version was created, eleven years later.  For source see, http://www.anything-blue.com/stories-blue/a-blue-map-of-china-frieze/

 

Week 7

 

Map of the Queen’s Pirate, Double-Hemisphere World Map entitled, Vera Totius Expeditionis Nauticae Descriptio by Jodocus Hondius (1595-96)

 

World.  Map by Dutch mapmakers charting the routes of Sir Francis Drake and Thomas Cavendish; Mapping the World – Nat’l Geo. at pp. 108-09

John Seller’s Maritime Atlas (1670)

 

World.  Seller’s maps represent the goal of the English through the East India Company to compete with the Dutch East India Company.  Maps were jealously guarded by the English Crown. Seller’s maps took advantage of the information from the Blaeu maps.  Excellent map and good description in Landmark at pp. 134-38.

 

Maps of William Baffin and Sir Thomas Roe (Mani Mogolis Imperium)

India.  Maps used to exploit the trade with India which was initially reaped by Portugal and Holland.  Description in Collecting at p. 124-25.

 

Baffin’s and Roe’s map later expanded treatment by French mapmaker Nicolas Sanson d’ Abbeville,  (L’Inde deca et dela le Gange, ou est L’Empire du Grand Mogul, Partie Meridonale de L’Inde)

 

James Cook’s maps

Chart of the Society Islands, 1769

 

Pacific Ocean and its islands by British navigator and cartographer, James Cook. Discussion at pp 146-47 at Nat’l Geo.

Capt. William Bligh’s chart of his open-boat journey from HMAV Bounty (1789)

 

Of HMAV Bounty fame, Capt. Bligh’s after the famous mutiny on his ship.  Discussion included with description of Captain James Cook on Mapping World at pp 74-77.

See also, A Map of the British colonies in North America, (John Mitchell, 1755)

 

Atlantic Seaboard.  Described as the most significant map in the history of the United States.  Used to settle the boundaries at the end of the Revolutionary War.  Description in the Smithsonian at pp. 172-75.

 

Week 8

 

Jansson Map of North America (1664)

Early America. Dutch Cartographer, Johannes Jansson’s America Septentrionalis one of the early maps showing California as a distinct island.  See http://www.helmink.com/Antique_Map_North _America/ to view the map online.

 

Map of New England (1677)(John Foster)

New England.  Attributed to be the first map printed in the Americas. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 172-75.

 

A Map of the British Colonies in North America (1755) (John Mitchell)

Atlantic Seaboard.  Described as the most significant map in the history of the United States.  Used to settle the boundaries at the end of the Revolutionary War.  Description in the Smithsonian at pp. 172-75.

 

Survey of the North Pacific (circa 1776)

(James Cook and Henry Roberts)

 

North America.  An example of an English map and their exploration of North America.  Description in Mapping the World pp. 108-09. 

 

Lewis & Clark Expedition of 1803-06

 

The map which defined the new western territory acquired in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803 led by expeditions by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. See description in Nat’l Geo 154-56.

 

Week 9

 

Jodocus Hondius Maps of West Africa (1606)

 

 

Africa. Dutch cartographer Hondius floral calligraphy detailed maps of West Africa based upon Portuguese exploration and settlement.  Description in Land at pp. 154-56.

 

Willem Blaeu’s Ornamental Africa (1618-1650)

 

Africa. Decorative map of Africa with highly decorated side panels of native characters and panorama of parts of the locations in the map. Description in Collecting at p. 114 also in Landmark at pp. 174-75.

 

Dr. Livingstone’s Map of Africa (1873)

 

Africa.  Famous for his meeting with Henry Morton Stanley, Livingston was the foremost discover and mapmaker of Africa in the 1860s and ‘70s.  Maps help propel the “scramble for Africa” by the European Imperial Powers. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 198-201.

 

van Keulen's Sea Chart of the

Gold Coast of Guinea (1680)


 Pieter Goos "navigational chart of the West Indies," (ca 1660)


Africa. The famous 1680 van Keulen Sea Chart of

the Gold Coast of Guinea, with detailed info 

on where to buy slaves and other information used by 

slave dealers.


Africa. This is a large scale overview chart showing the Atlantic and the slave trade routes between Europe, Africa and the Americas.

Week 10

 

Early Portolan Maps showing California (1557-78)

 

These early maps were used to navigate the coastal waters of the New World particularly its Western half. Mapping the West at pp. 22-27.

Maris Pacifici by Abraham Ortelius (1589)

The first map of the Pacific Ocean by legendary mapmaker Abraham Ortelius. See description in Mapping the West at pp. 31-33.

 

North America by Johannes Jansson (1640)

 

North America. First Dutch map to show California as an island.  See Collecting at p. 144.

America by Jodocus Hondius (1606)

 

North America. Significant map of America by the best map engraver of his day. Copy available on line at http://www.helmink.com/Antique_Mapp_ Hondius_ America/ and supplied to SDG.

 

Novi Belggi and Totius Americae Descripto (antique map of America) by Nicolaas Visscher (cir. 1656)

 

North East America. Map of Northeast coast of the United States focused on New York. Description in Collecting at pp. 24-25.  And  Antique Map of America at  http://www.helmink.com/Antique_Map_Visscdher_America/

Tabula California by Eusebio Francisco Kino (1702)

 

California/Mexico.  Jesuit missionary who established that California was not a separate island and instead, “Baja California” was connected to the mainland. Description in Smithsonian at pp. 160-61.

The Cortes Map (1524)

 

Duplicates Week 3 map. Map of the Gulf of Mexico and Plan of Mexico City. Marked the European discovery of the Western part of North America.  See description in Mapping the West pp 18-21.

 

Aztec Map of Tenochtitlan (1542)

 

Drawn by unknown maker after Mexico City feel to Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes.  Description found at pp 104-05 in Smithsonian.

Sceno Graphia Systematis Copernicani by Andreas Cellarius (1660)

Celestial. Cellarius’ atlas showing the relationship of the Earth to the Sun at the times of equinox and solstice.  Description in Collecting, pp. 174-75.

                                         

Bibliography

Bibliography

        About Maps and Their Makers

Core Books: 

Smithsonian – Great Maps, J. Brotton, DK Publishing (New York, New York) 2014. (“Smithsonian”)

A History of the World in 12 Maps, J. Brotton, Viking (New York, New York) 2012. (“Brotton or History 12 Maps”)

Recommended Map Treatises:

Collecting Antique Maps, J. Potter (1988). Jonathan Potter, Ltd (London) (“Collecting”)

Landmarks of Mapmaking, An Illustrated History of Maps and Mapmaking, R. V. Tooley and C. Bricker, Dorset Press (New York, New York) (“Landmarks”)

Mapping the Silk Road and Beyond – 2,000 Years of Exploring the East, K. Nebenzahl, Phaidon Press Limited (London) (“Mapping the Silk Road”)

Mapping the World – The Story of Cartography, Riffenburgh, B., Andre Deutsch Limited (London) 2014 (“Mapping the World”) 

Mapping the World – An Illustrated History of Cartography, Ehrenberg, Rapher, National Geographic Society 2005 (“Nat’l Geo”)

The Golden Age of Maritime Maps, When Europe Discovered the World, National Library of France, Firefly Books (U.S.) 2012. (“Golden Age”)

    

About World Events

Recommended:

Concise History of the World – An Illustrated Time Line, Kagan N. (Editor) National Geographic (Washington, D.C.) 2013 (“Concise”)

History – The Definitive Visual Guide -- From the Dawn of Civilization to the Present Day, D. K. Publishing (New York, New York) 2007 (“DK History”)

The Times Complete History of the World, 9th Ed., Overy, R. (Editor) Times Books (London) 2015 (“London Times”)

Other:

Longitude, Sobel, D.Walker Publishing Company, Inc. 1995 (New York, New York)